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  • Balancing zone

    From the perspective of operations in the field of electricity supply, the balancing zone is the grid area which the responsible transmission system operator controls, regulates and monitors. The output imbalances in the balancing zone (differences between planned target and actual values of the exchange of output with other balancing zones) are compensated by the transmission system operator through the activation of provided balancing power which is put out to tender.

  • Bottleneck output

    The bottleneck output of a generating unit corresponds to the continuous output which can be achieved under normal conditions. It is limited by the part of the plant which has the lowest efficiency (bottleneck). Parts of the plant which cannot be used for a short period do not reduce the bottleneck output.

  • Calculation of the maximum available energy

    Net bottleneck output x (annual output – (total of the planned outages during the respective year in hours)
    This means it provides a theoretical description of the maximum net electric work which can be produced during a calendar year under consideration of all non-usabilities known until the time of reporting. This parameter cannot be used as a benchmark for scheduled or actual generation.

  • Cold reserve, preserved

    Cold reserve, preserved refers to a generating plant which has been decommissioned but has a valid operating permit and can be used to the full extent from a technical perspective and, which is, however, not operated for other reasons (e.g. long-term fuel shortage, too high fuel prices). Recommissioning requires the preservation measures to be removed and is, hence, not possible right away. For this reason, the output which is part of the preserved cold reserve is not directly available for the market either.

  • Commissioning stage

    Generation plants are not available for commercial purposes during the commissioning stage since the suitability of the respective plant for continuous operation needs to be proven prior to the commercial use of the plant. These suitability tests correspond to technical and official tests. The output generated during the commissioning stage is fed into the public power grid as unsecured output. Reliable ex-ante data on this is not available.

  • Continuous output

    The continuous output of a power generating, transmitting or consuming plant is the maximum output which is provided during proper operation of the plant without restrictions in terms of time and does not affect the unit’s service life (operating time) and safety.